REMEMBER: ENGLISH UNIT TEST

3A NOVEMBER 13 TH

3B NOVEMBRE 12 TH

STUDY RELATIVE CLAUSES

Relative Clauses

http://www.grammarbank.com/relative-clauses-examples.html

http://www.grammarbank.com/relative-clause-examples-2.html

http://www.k12reader.com/relative-pronouns/

Now you are going to read a little about relatives clauses.This information was taken from  http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/relative-clauses

USE:

We use relative clauses to give additional information about something without starting another sentence. By combining sentences with a relative clause, your text becomes more fluent and you can avoid repeating certain words.

How to Form Relative Clauses Level 2

Imagine, a girl is talking to Tom. You want to know who she is and ask a friend whether he knows her. You could say:

A girl is talking to Tom. Do you know the girl?

That sounds rather complicated, doesn’t it? It would be easier with a relative clause: you put both pieces of information into one sentence. Start with the most important thing  – you want to know who the girl is.

Do you know the girl …

As your friend cannot know which girl you are talking about, you need to put in the additional information  – the girl is talking to Tom. Use „the girl“ only in the first part of the sentence, in the second part replace it with the relative pronoun (for people, use the relative pronoun „who“). So the final sentence is:

Do you know the girl who is talking to Tom?

Relative Pronouns Level 2

relative pronoun use example
who subject or object pronoun for people I told you about the woman who lives next door.
which subject or object pronoun for animals and things Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof?
which referring to a whole sentence He couldn’t read which surprised me.
whose possession for people animals and things Do you know the boy whose mother is a nurse?
whom object pronoun for people, especially in non-defining relative clauses (in defining relative clauses we colloquially prefer who) I was invited by the professor whom I met at the conference.
that subject or object pronoun for people, animals and things in defining relative clauses (who or which are also possible) I don’t like the table that stands in the kitchen.

Subject Pronoun or Object Pronoun? Level 2

Subject and object pronouns cannot be distinguished by their forms – who, which, that are used for subject and object pronouns. You can, however, distinguish them as follows:

If the relative pronoun is followed by a verb, the relative pronoun is a subject pronoun. Subject pronouns must always be used.

the apple which is lying on the table

If the relative pronoun is not followed by a verb (but by a noun or pronoun), the relative pronoun is an object pronoun. Object pronouns can be dropped in defining relative clauses, which are then called Contact Clauses.

the apple (which) George lay on the table

Relative Adverbs Level 3

A relative adverb can be used instead of a relative pronoun plus preposition. This often makes the sentence easier to understand.

This is the shop in which I bought my bike.
→ This is the shop where I bought my bike.

relative adverb meaning use example
when in/on which refers to a time expression the day when we met him
where in/at which refers to a place the place where we met him
why for which refers to a reason the reason why we met him

Defining Relative Clauses Level 2

Defining relative clauses (also called identifying relative clauses or restrictive relative clauses) give detailed information defining a general term or expression. Defining relative clauses are not put in commas.

Imagine, Tom is in a room with five girls. One girl is talking to Tom and you ask somebody whether he knows this girl. Here the relative clause defines which of the five girls you mean.

Do you know the girl who is talking to Tom?

Defining relative clauses are often used in definitions.

A seaman is someone who works on a ship.

Object pronouns in defining relative clauses can be dropped. (Sentences with a relative clause without the relative pronoun are called Contact Clauses.)

The boy (who/whom) we met yesterday is very nice.

Non-Defining Relative Clauses Level 4

Non-defining relative clauses (also called non-identifying relative clauses or non-restrictive relative clauses) give additional information on something, but do not define it. Non-defining relative clauses are put in commas.

Imagine, Tom is in a room with only one girl. The two are talking to each other and you ask somebody whether he knows this girl. Here the relative clause is non-defining because in this situation it is obvious which girl you mean.

Do you know the girl, who is talking to Tom?

Note: In non-defining relative clauses, who/which may not be replaced with that.

Object pronouns in non-defining relative clauses must be used.

Jim, who/whom we met yesterday, is very nice.

How to Shorten Relative Clauses? Level 3

Relative clauses with whowhichthat as subject pronoun can be replaced with a participle. This makes the sentence shorter and easier to understand.

I told you about the woman who lives next door. – I told you about the woman living next door.

Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof? – Do you see the cat lying on the roof?

Exercises on Relative Clauses

Relative Pronouns and Relative Adverbs

Relative Clauses and Contact Clauses

Tests

CHOOSE THE CORRECT ALTERNATIVE.

READ MORE ABOUT YOUR ANSWERS  http://www.usingenglish.com/quizzes/234.html

 

Q1 – The people ……. moved in next door seem very friendly

who
whom
which

Q2 – The man ….. answered the phone was rather rude

which
that
whom

Q3 – Where are the people …….. ordered the taxi?

that
which
—-

Q4 – I’ve lost the paper …… I had written her phone number on

—-
whose
that

Q5 – The day …… I started work there was a disaster

which
that
where
Q6 – The man ……. interviewed you is the boss
that
—-
which
Q7 – The man ……. house was robbed has still not been paid by the insurance company
which
that
whose
Q8 – He’s got three dogs, all of ….. are aggressive
which
that
—-
Q9 – Who’s moved the papers …… I left on my desk?
who
whom
that
Q10 – You should complain to the people ……. supplied it
—-
who
which
Q11 – They arrested the man …… was over the alcohol limit
that
which
whom
Q12 – The men, ……. were in a hurry, didn’t finish the job properly
that
who
which
Q13 – The pub, …….. lost its licence, has been turned into a shop
which
that
—-
Q14 – Two guys, ……. car had broken down, asked me for a lift
whose
whom
which
Q15 – I’d love to meet the idiot …… made these rules
that
which
whose
Q16 – Did you get everything ……. you wanted?
who
—-
whose
Q17 – The boy ……. bag was stolen is over there
which
that
whose
Q18 – She failed the exam, …… came as a great surprise to us all
—-
which
that
Q19 – The film, …… lasted for three hours, was boring
that
which
—-
Q20 – The flats, ……. will house over two hundred families, were completed last month
—-
that
which
Q21 – The boxer …… career was ruined by health problems was on TV last night
whose
whom
who
Q22 – The day ……. we met was the happiest of my life
—-
which
whose
Q23 – You’ll have to speak to the person ….. is in charge
—-
which
that
Q24 – He’s the guy …… brother was sacked for stealing
who
whose
whom
Q25 – Is there a shop nearby …… sells stamps?
—-
whose
which
Q26 – Is there a store around here ……. I can get some stamps?
—-
which
where
Q27 – They blamed me for everything ……. went wrong
—-
whose
that
Q28 – Nothing …… she said surprised me
—-
that
what
Q29 – I was to blame for everything ……. went wrong
what
that
—-
Q30 – You’ll have to try to get in touch with the person ….. is responsible for staff training
—-
who
which
Q31 – The man …….. wanted to see you left a few minutes ago
—-
who
which
Q32 – There were three applicants, none of ….. seemed very competent
which
—-
whom
Q33 – A lot of people were offended by the jokes …… he told
where
that
who
Q34 – He works for a firm …… produces software
that
—-
who
Q35 – Companies ……. shareholders control them have little possibility of making their own decisions
that
whose
who

Read more at http://www.usingenglish.com/quizzes/234.html#4WqlJKtkxtIEvz18.99